CBSE Power Sharing Class 10 Notes Chapter 1

Chapter 1 of the NCERT Social Science Civics textbook, titled “Power-sharing,” introduces students to a system called power-sharing in a democracy. This system allows the government to share its responsibilities and powers at different levels. Let’s delve into the key concepts

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Power Sharing Class 10 Notes Chapter 1

Topics Covered in Power Sharing Class 10 Notes Chapter 1

Power Sharing Notes edit min

Power sharing comprises the sharing of power and the sharing of work by the government. 

  • There are many forms of Power Sharing. 
  • It is an important feature of democracy. 

 It helps in –  

  1. Shaping public policies  
  2. Handel the public demands  
  3. Proper functioning of government  

To understand this, Let’s take two examples. 

  • One is Belgium  
  • And another is Sri Lanka 
Power Sharing Notes edit 1 min


Location: Western Europe  

Neighboring Countries 

  1. Netherland (North)  
  2. France (South)  
  3. Germany (East)  
  4. Luxembourg (East)
Power Sharing Notes edit 2 min

The Ethnic composition in Belgium is very complex. 

Population distribution of the country  

  1. – Dutch-speaking people ( Lived in the Flemish region) – 59%  
  2. – French-speaking people ( Lived in Wallonia region) – 40%  
  3. – German-speaking people – 1%  
Power Sharing Notes edit 3 min

But, the population composition in the capital city of Brussels is different.

  1. – French-speaking people – 80%  
  2. – Dutch-speaking people – 20%  

French people are a minority in the country but the majority in the capital city. They are also rich and powerful. 

On the contrary, Dutch-speaking people are the majority in the country but a minority in the capital city. They are poor and less powerful. They gained economic development and education much later. 

This led to a severe conflict among Dutch-speaking and French-speaking communities in the country during the 1950s and 1960s. 


The leaders of Belgium took the problem seriously and solved it differently, prioritizing national unity and regional and cultural diversity. 

From 1970 to 1993, Belgium amended its constitution FOUR times to accommodate. 

The changes are –

  •  – Equal number of ministers from both the community and Central government. 
  • – The State government is not subordinate to the central government. Powers are shared among both governments. 
  • – Capital city Brussels got a separate government with equal representation for both the communities. 
  • – A community government is also built at the local level, which can make laws regarding education, culture, and language. 

In this way, Belgium has become a prosperous country where different communities can live happily.

Power Sharing Notes edit 5 min


Population Composition : 

  • Sinhalese – 74%  
  • Tamilian – 18%  
    • Sri Lankan Tamil – 13%  
    • Indian Tamil – 5%
Power Sharing Notes edit 4 min

Sri Lanka gained Independence in 1948  

The leaders of the Sinhala community established dominance over the government by their majority. 

That means, in Sri Lanka, only the Sinhala community people make significant decisions, and there is no room for the minorities, basically, who are Tamilians. 

This type of governance can be termed as MAJORITARIAN GOVERNANCE or MAJORITARIANISM.

Problems of Sri Lanka 

  • An act was passed in 1956 recognizing Sinhala as the only official language. This means that Sri Lankan leaders did not recognize Tamil as a language. 
  • The government gives reservations to Sinhala applicants for University and government jobs. In this way, they have the right to participate in government jobs. 
  • The government declared Buddhism its national religion and protected it, which means it does not recognize other religions. 

The Tamilians felt alienated and decided to do something for them.

Power Sharing Notes edit 6 min

The Struggle of Sri Lankan Tamils

  • Sri Lankan Tamils have formed their parties and struggle for the recognition of Tamil as an official language. 
  • – They demanded regional autonomy and equality of opportunity in securing education and government jobs

But, their demands were suppressed repeatedly. As a result, they found LTTE ( Liberation of Tamil Tiger Eelam) 

The conflict between the two communities soon turns into civil war.

Result of struggle  

  • – Thousand of people are killed in this civil war from both the communities. 
  • – This civil war negatively impacted the Social, Cultural, and Economic life of Sri Lankans. 
  • – Many families were forced to leave the country and also lost their livelihoods.
Power Sharing Notes edit 7 min


Two main reasons are 

  1. Prudential Reason  
  2. Moral Reason


  • It helps to reduce the possibility of conflict among different communities. 
  • It generates better outcomes for the country. 
  • It stabilizes the political order of the country. 
  • While imposing the will of the majority over the minority may seem like an attractive option, it destroys the nation’s unity. 
  • The tyranny of the majority over the minority sometimes destroys the majority class itself. 

MORAL REASON of Power Sharing 

  • – Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy. – People should have the right to be constituted on how they will be governed. 
  • – In a democracy, political power should be distributed among as many citizens as possible. 
  • In a democracy, people are the king. They rule themselves through institutions of self-governance, and everyone, including minorities, should have a voice in shaping public policy.
  •  – A legitimate government is one where citizens can acquire a stake in the political system through participation.


  1. Horizontal Division of Power  
  2. Vertical Division of Power  
  3. Community Government 
  4. Sharing of power among different groups


Power Sharing Notes edit 8 min
  • – This power-sharing arrangement works at the same level of government. 
  • – Each level of government has three organs, namely, 
    • 1. Legislative ( Who makes laws)  
    • 2. Executive (Who implement laws)  
    • 3. Judiciary (Who gives judgment when anyone breaks the laws) 
  • – Such separation ensures that none of the organs can exercise unlimited power. 
  • – This type of power-sharing is also known as the balance of powers. 
  • – Hence, it is a system of Checks and Balances


Power Sharing Notes edit 9 min
  • – This power-sharing arrangement works in the different levels of government. 
  • – This type of power-sharing is also known as Federalism. 
  • – The different levels of government are 
    • 1. Central or Union government 
    • 2. State or Regional or Provincial government 
    • 3. Community or Local government ( Panchayat or Municipality) 
  • – This arrangement is called the Federal Division of Power. 
  • – It united the country and respected its diversity.


  • – Here, power is shared among different social groups or communities, such as religious or linguistic groups. 
  • – This type of power-sharing can enable people belonging to minority groups to run the country and make decisions on behalf of them. 
  • – Reserved Constituency is an example of this type of power-sharing.


  • – This type of power-sharing is very recent in a modern democracy. 
  • – Coalition Government is the best example of it. 
  • – Political parties and Pressure groups like business and workers’ unions are examples. 
  • – These groups can influence the government in the decision-making process. 
  • – In this way, democracy becomes more vibrant and vivid.


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